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Who remembers when floppy disks provided a new level of capability for the Department of Defense to support the operations of strategic forces across the world?

It was only in the last few years that DoD retired those 8-inch floppies in favor of modern computer capabilities, and the push is on to accelerate modernization of systems that rely on older technology in order to address modern threats.

This accumulation of older software and infrastructure, known as technical debt, takes a substantial amount of budget and resources to maintain, which puts pressure on new innovation required for enterprise functions such as cybersecurity.

The Pentagon recognizes the impact of technical debt on protecting systems and data from cyberattacks. It intends to deploy a zero-trust strategy across the whole department by 2027. By assuming every application, network, connection, and user can become a threat, a zero-trust framework validates access through control policies for specific functions – a significant advancement from perimeter-based security that can allow unrestricted access once an attacker gets inside the network.

Technical Debt Hinders Cybersecurity

The Biden Administration’s executive order on cybersecurity in May 2021 jump started the movement toward a zero-trust architecture. It called for modernized cyber defenses, improved information sharing, and stronger responses to attacks, all of which start with zero trust and depend on modern technologies such as identity management, cloud, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analytics.

To accelerate this implementation of zero trust, DoD must continue to pay down its technical debt.

The Pentagon can look to the Department of Labor as a model to balance legacy system needs and innovation. As CIO Gundeep Ahluwalia explained in a recent interview, “When I joined the department six years ago, we invested only 10% of funds in modernization and development. Now we allocate 25% of our overall funds, and ideally, this will increase to 40% in the near future for modernization and development. Modernization is a continuum, and this investment is essentially paying down that technical debt while preventing it from building up again.”

Technical debt has taken on new importance with its reference in the National Defense Authorization Act of 2022, which authorizes the DoD to study it and make recommendations on its impact to software-intensive systems. DOD CIO John Sherman recently emphasized the connection between technical debt and zero trust as a cyber defense, and he confirmed the department’s commitment to addressing it as adversarial threats increase.

The scope of the technical debt problem is difficult to calculate, but if historical patterns have continued, then 75 percent of the federal budget goes to operations and maintenance of legacy systems. That’s older technology that is not prepared or hardened for today’s cyber attacks.

Technology That Stays Ahead of Evolving Threats

There are ways to surround legacy systems with newer, resilient technologies and provide a layered defense of mission-critical applications and data.

Identity management, for example, distinguishes a digital identity, while authentication confirms the identity to allow permission-based access to networks, applications, and data. Moreover, operating within a zero-trust environment prevents users from gaining access unless they have the appropriate authentication and authorization.

The sheer amount of data from cyberattacks requires innovations in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and analytics so that data quickly gets aggregated and filtered, patterns are detected, and threats are elevated for further review.

Because the Pentagon is such a large target for cyberattacks, the Defense Department needs these technologies and a zero-trust methodology to eliminate both older technology and processes performed manually, which will reduce threats and fend off penetration.

While perimeter security has become standard for many networks, the executive order on cybersecurity and the DoD’s strategy for zero trust represent the government’s intention to change that. It will require more than technology to nullify existing threats and prevent unknown ones from becoming attacks.

For DoD to reach its full potential for cybersecurity, it must instill a shift in thinking that goes beyond perimeter defenses. Users need to embrace requirements such as multiple logins for enterprise-wide zero trust as well as information sharing that allows for better threat detection and response.

As the Pentagon tackles its technical debt to improve cybersecurity and overall asset protection, it can take the opportunity to renew users’ passion for the mission and good cyber behavior.

This article was originally written and published on